Category Archives: LED

Tero Explains: What is EPREL for light sources? 2/3

The first article of this 3-part blog post series was dealing with the near-term history of European directives and regulations related to energy efficiency and different energy-related products (ErP), not only energy-using products (EuP).

Starting from Kioto 2005, this process has then proceeded to the situation, where new kinds of regulations have been taken into use, concerning many energy-related products, the latest of those being light sources.

Since 1st September 2021, the insertion of light sources into the EPREL (European Product Registry for Energy Labelling) database has been possible officially. Some problems have occurred in the technical insertion process and also in decisions over which component is a light source and which component is not. The term ’light source’ is defined in the European Commission Regulation EU 2019/2020 laying down ecodesign requirements for light sources and separate control gears (Single Lighting Regulation, SLR).

In this blog post, you can learn how light sources are categorized and what this categorization means in each case.

Categorizing the light sources – is the light source removable or not?

I shortly presented the terms of ’containing product’, ’light source’, and ’separate control gear’ in my earlier blog post in this series. SLR requires that the light source and separate control gear are removable so that the luminaire/fixture can be called the containing product. If not removable, the whole fixture itself has to be regarded as a light source.

Here starts the categorization. I concentrate on light sources in this post. The easiest case is a containing product without a light source: Not Applicable (it is just an empty luminaire body that has no light source included). The second easiest case is the LED lamp that you can buy from a retail store. Then it is not containing a product but only a light source. The sales package in store should include an energy label and other information defined in SLR regulation. Additionally, the lamp information should be added to the EPREL database.

Then let’s proceed into the case(s) where containing product includes the light source.

The first question is that is the light source itself removable? If it is, then it has to fulfill light source requirements defined in Ecodesign/SLR regulation. It is enough that the light source is removable from the containing product without breaking the light source. The containing product is allowed to still deteriorate in that case, but not the light source.

Then there is the next case. If the light source is NOT removable without breaking it, then the whole lighting fixture is considered a light source. The sales package of the containing product has to include an energy label and also other information defined in SLR regulation.

So, the key point is the question, is the light source removable or not? The question, is the light source replaceable or not, is not relevant otherwise than for the end-user that is you or me, a consumer. The supplier (or manufacturer) has to inform in their technical representation, why the light source is not replaceable. This technical documentation should also include information that “this containing product includes a light source the energy efficiency class of which is X”. X can vary from A to G in the new energy efficiency classification. Light source information together with the energy efficiency class must be found in the EPREL database.

Requirements defined in SLR/Ecodesign Regulation

There are several requirements defined in SLR/Ecodesign regulation. These are:

  1. Energy efficiency requirements
  2. Functional requirements
  3. Information requirements (markings)

Energy efficiency requirements

First of all, energy efficiency requirements demand that power consumption of a light source can’t exceed Pon,max (W), which is defined for different light sources in the 2019/2020 SLR regulation. Pon,max depends on many parameters, some of them are real and measurable values and part of them are computational values or factors/multipliers. Computational values are based somewhat ”loosely” on the real world.

If you measure for example your LED board/module in the integrating sphere, and the light source is defined as a non-directional light source (NDLS), you can use all lumens that you measure in your sphere as useful luminous flux (term defined in SLR regulation). If you have a directional light source (DLS), the regulation defines which portion of light you can use for this directional light source. Usually, the measurement for the DLS light sources is better to carry out with a goniometer that can measure light intensity at different angles unlike with integrating sphere which collects all the light rays and integrates them for the spectrometer through an optical fiber.

This relates essentially to EPREL energy class information because you define the energy class according to the following equation:

hTM = (Fuse/Pon) x FTM

where hTM is total mains efficacy, Fuse and Pon are LED parameters (useful luminous flux and power consumption of the measured LED board, COB LED, or any other light source) that are measured from the light source and FTM is a multiplier that is 1.00 for mains light source (MLS, e.g. AC LED) and 0.926 for the non-mains light source (NMLS, e.g. LED board that needs a separate control gear for operation).

The updated measurement software can calculate hTM value directly when you first choose in the software, is your light source NDLS or DLS, and is it NMLS or MLS light source. So spectrometer first measures luminous flux and power consumption and calculates LED luminous efficacy, and then by using a correct multiplier for your light source, calculates total mains efficacy that defines the energy class. For example, in the case of an LED board with separate control gear, this multiplier is 0.926 (see the previous paragraph). Then you can add your LED light source to the EPREL database by filling in all public information, and the EPREL database creates the final energy label for your light source. For market surveillance, you have to add also other technical information, that is not publicly available for everyone.

Functional requirements

Then there are functional requirements. They include many parameters that also depend on the used control gear (LED driver in our case).

  • CRI index ≥80 (outdoor and industrial applications are the exceptions)
  • Power factor cosf (certain limits, depending on the control gear used)
  • Lumen maintenance factor (LED and OLED light sources) àbased on L70B50 value in hours
  • Survival factor (LED and OLED light sources) àrelated to the lumen maintenance factor
  • Color consistency (LED and OLED) àhas to be MacAdam 6-step or lower
  • Flicker PstLM (LED and OLED), depends on the control gear à PstLM≤1.0
  • Stroboscopic effect (LED and OLED), depending on the control gear à SVM value≤0.4

Two last values are defined at full load condition.

Information requirements (markings)

Finally, there are information (marking) requirements.

The surface of the light source itself (not package marking):

  • Useful luminous flux (lm)
  • CCT/Correlated color temperature (K)
  • For directional light sources (DLS), also radiation angle (°)
  • Depending on the size of the light source, the priority is 1) Luminous flux, 2) CCT and 3) radiation angle.

Packing information:

For all light sources, which are sold separately in an independent packaging (but not in a containing product) through a point-of-sale, there are several requirements regarding the packing information. Some of these are mentioned below. It is to be noted that the three first ones shall also be marked on the surface of the light source, given that there is space for all three.

  • Useful luminous flux (lm)
  • CCT/Correlated color temperature (K)
  • For directional light sources (DLS), radiation angle (°)
  • Electrical interface details
  • L70B50 lifetime (hours)
  • On-mode power (Pon)
  • Standby power (Psb)
  • Networked standby power (Pnet)
  • CRI/Colour rendering index
  • Indication if CRI<80 (note; the application must allow it)
  • Indication if the light source is designed for non-standard conditions
  • Warning sign, if dimming is not allowed or can be realized only with specific dimmers
  • Warning sign, if the light source contains mercury

As an alternative to text, the information can also be given in the form of graphs, drawings, or symbols. Besides this information, the packing must show the energy label.

If a light source is being sold as a part of containing the product (and the light source is removable), the requirements are different. In this case, there can’t be any energy label on the containing product packaging. The packaging must indicate the following:

  • Information on whether the light source is replaceable or not, must be shown on the packaging (in the case of end-user sales) or on a free-access website
  • Information if the light source can be replaced only by a professional

As an alternative to text, the information can also be given in the form of graphs, drawings, or symbols.

Conclusion

This is what SLR is in a nutshell. And how you define energy class for your light sources. For printing the label from the EPREL database, you can ask help from the EPREL help desk or your local officials.

In the third, and the last, article of this blog post series, we concentrate on the effects that these regulations may set for the whole lighting industry. As you can see, many parameters depend also on the driver/control gear that is used with the light source. How this affects the component (light source and/or control gear) selections to make genuinely Eco-designed containing products, this we will discuss in the last part of this series.

If you have any questions, you can email me at tero.nurmi@light.fi.


Tero Explains: The New EU Regulations coming on September 1/3

In this blog post series of 3 articles, our technical sales Tero Nurmi will tell you about the new EU regulations which will take part on 1st September 2021. In this blog series first Tero will tell you, what are these two different regulations: Single Lighting Regulation (SLR) and Energy Label Regulation (ELR). After that, Tero will go deeper into the subject of how this really affects the lighting industry.

What is ErP? 

ErP is the abbreviation of Energy-related Products. It also refers to Energy-related Products Directive (ErP) 2009/125/EC that replaced the old Energy-using Products Directive (EuP) in November 2009. The original EuP was taken into use in 2005 to fulfill the Kioto agreement requirements for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

The ErP broadened the range of products that were covered in EuP. Earlier only directly energy-consuming (or using) products were covered. Now ErP directive also covers the products related to energy. This could be for example water-saving taps, etc.

The idea is to cover the whole product supply chain: design stage, production, transport, packaging, storage, etc.

Products that comply with this new ErP directive are recognized from CE -marking. In this case, the CE -mark covers product safety and energy efficiency requirements. 

How this relates to lighting? 

If we take the new directive, ErP EU 2019/2020, we can divide it into two groups concerning ecological design requirements:

  • Light Sources 
  • Separate Control Gears 

These requirements can also be applied to luminaires. The luminaires are so-called containing products that contain a light source(s) and control gear within the luminaire.

The development has gone further: now these ”ecodesign” principles are applied to the smallest possible units that can be considered as light sources. In this text, we do not go too much into details. I’ll explain everything more precisely in the further blog posts.

In December 2019, the European Commission published two different regulations: Single Lighting Regulation (SLR) and Energy Label Regulation (ELR). The former is also called Ecodesign Regulation for Lighting. SLR defines performance requirements, which are product-specific, for energy-using and energy-related products, while ELR includes labeling requirements for selling the products in the EU market.

There is a general state of mind that both these regulations, SLR and ELR, will apply from 1st September 2021.

SLR and ELR, and especially their application to LED light sources, will be handled more elaborately in forthcoming posts. 

The New Citizen Generation 8.5: Maximize the LES lumen output

Two weeks ago we launched the new product, aLED SUVISPOT, which is all about the greatest color rendering there is. However, sometimes the application doesn’t need great color rendering. We are now talking about industrial lighting and some outdoor lighting like in the sports fields. In these cases, the lumen output is more important than color rendering.

In this blog post, I’ll tell you about a new product from Citizen which is the answer to all high lumen output needs. It’s Citizen generation 8.5.

Citizen generation 8.5 has two main features. First, you can drive it with 300mA per diode, which is 120mA higher than in basic generation 8. Second, it has higher efficacy than in generation 6. These two features combined give you the opportunity to maximize the lumen output of the LES. Let’s get more into that.

Features of the new 8.5 Generation COB LEDs

  • Ra70min 
  • MacAdam 3step
  • 5% better lumen efficacy than in generation 6
  • Higher maximum driving current – 300mA
  • Available in all regular Citizen COB sizes
  • Up to 82 000 lumens
  • Great compatibility with aLED ALOG100 glass lenses
    • Angles from 20° to 160° and street light lens 140°x70°

Maximizing the lumen output of the LES

All Citizen COB LEDs has four different LES sizes. Because the LES size affects how optics work, LES sizes are often one of the principals of the technical luminaire design. Here we will give you some examples of how Citizen generation 8.5 LEDs can be used. In addition, we will tell you the maximum lumen output of each LES size. Because our aLED ALOG100 glass lens series goes so well with these LEDs we will use them too in the examples.

What is LES? – LES comes from the words Light-emitting surface.
In the nutshell, it means the size of the light area.

Maximum lumen output examples

The next examples are all generated with a simulator. Note that, actual values may differ by the application. All examples use the same aLED ALOG100 borosilicate glass lens (ALOG100-045). In the lux values, the optic’s efficiency has been noted.

Ø9,7mm – 5 758 lumens

This first example is something that I think is really interesting. Here is the smallest COB LED which LES diameter is only 9,7mm. From this tiny LED you can get almost 6000 lumens. This is 1300 lumens more than with generation 6 equivalent products. 

In other words, with this LED you can make luminaires with high lumen output and a very narrow beam angle.

Ø14,5mm – 14 429 lumens

As I said before LES size affects the light distribution. Here we use the same ALOG100-045 glass lens as in the previous example. However, the LES size is now 14,5mm, so the light beam angle expands to 30 degrees. This means that even though we have now three times more lumens, the lux values stay almost the same. But note that the diameter of the light beam (@14 meters) is now 1,5 times bigger.

Also, with this LED you can get over 3000 lumens more than with generation 6 equivalent product.

Ø22,0mm – 38 370 lumens

In this example we are getting 38 370 lumens from LES size 22mm. This is over 8000 lumens more than with generation 6 equivalent product.

This solution gives you tremendous amount of light to very wide area.

Ø32,8mm – 77 204 lumens

This last example is something extreme. Here we are getting the highest lumen output on this series. With the biggest COB LED (LES Ø32,8mm) you can get 77 2004 lumens with 612W. Which is over 16 000 lumens more than with generation 6 equivalent product.

Where to use Citizen Generation 8.5 COB LEDs?

Now that we have gone through some examples, and maybe you have already invented a couple of uses for the LED yourself, I will tell you application ideas for the new generation LEDs.

As this series’ color rendering index is only Ra70, it is not meant for places where you want to make the colors pop. That is because generation 8.5 COB LEDs are great for industrial use, where you need a lot of light and the height of luminaire can be really high. Warehouses, airports, and sawmills are great places to use these LEDs.

Also, when you need a lot of light and a narrow light beam angle, you should note this generation. 20° light beam and 5700 lumens is a really tough duo.

Do you want to know more about Citizen generation 8.5 products? Contact our sales team by email info@light.fi and they will tell you everything you want to know about these new products. If you have any comments about this blog post, feel free to comment down below.

Download a brochure about Citizen generation 8.5 below.

Download Here

aLED Modules – high efficacy and quality

aLED LED nodules

aLED products are Arrant Light Oy’s own line of LED modules. 

We have been designing and producing LED modules since 2008. Our LED modules have been used for mass production luminaires and also for projects that need a special solution like in hospitals, automotive industry, safety light, and architectural lighting. We have dozens of standard LED modules at stock for instant deliveries. Also, we can quickly design and produce customized LED modules and prototypes for your needs.

We always use the best components for our LED modules, for example highly thermally conductive aluminum PCB and high reflective PCB solder mask. These features will make the LED modules and final product more efficient. We have chosen all components precisely and they fulfill our high-quality standards. 

We can produce LED modules exactly for your requirements.

  • Color rendering index (Ra80, Ra90, and Ra95)
  • Different color temperatures (1850K, 2200K, 2500K, 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4000K, 4500K, 5000K, 6500K and also special colors)
  • Tunable White and Dim-to-Warm
  • RGB and RGB-A
  • Different shapes of the module
  • Constant current and voltage

We Always Test our LED Modules

our integrated sphere

With our integrated sphere, we can measure LED modules and luminaires up to two meters in length. This way we can always get precise information about light quality and electrical features. In the production line, all our LED modules are already measured, but we still measure some modules of every production batch with integrated sphere. We want to be sure that current, voltage, lumens, efficacy, spectrum and color rendering index are what we promise. This way we can check that our products are uniform, high-quality and with the specs agreed.  

If you use our aLED modules, we can offer an additional measurement service for your luminaire’s photometric values. 

Below you can download datasheets about our linear LED modules. 

Million shades of white LED

Nowadays LEDs have great efficacy and lifetime. They produce more and more light with less power. I think that it’s less important to increase efficacy because we have already reached what the market demands. What else we need from the light than a lot of lumens? In this blog post, I’ll compare the differences between white LEDs.

We all know that LEDs are available in different color temperatures. For example, Citizen 6 generation’s LEDs are available from 2700K to 6500K. They are also available in different color rendering indexes. Color rendering index simply means how well a white light source can show, or render, colors compared to sunlight. We know that the color rendering index does not always tell the whole truth (You can read more from this blog post).

Nowadays we need a light source that has good efficacy and color rendering, and it doesn’t hurt if the light source can be customized to use in many different luminaires. We want light source that brings colors vivid and alive. Also, design interiors with relaxing atmosphere.

Let’s look into what else affects the quality of light than the color rendering index and color temperature.

White without greenish tone

IMAGE: Black line in the picture is B.B.L. Red circles indicate below B.B.L. LEDs.

In some projects, we want a light source that makes white look whiter. Some LEDs may turn white into light green. Traditional white LEDs’ color temperature chromaticity is on or very near B.B.L. (Black Body Locus). Citizen also produces below B.B.L. LEDs. Their color temperature is below the B.B.L. line. As you can see in the picture, above the line is greenish colors and below the line is reddish colors. Below B.B.L. LEDs make white look pure white and it also renders red colors better. This way we can create light that doesn’t have a greenish tint.

Below B.B.L. LEDs are very popular in shop lighting and everywhere where brisk atmosphere is needed.

Read more about the color temperature from this blog post.

More attractive display with high color contrast

The general color rendering index (CRI) is defined as an average of the sum of first eight R-values. However, these first eight indexes are rather less saturated colors, while indexes R9-R12 represent highly saturated colors. This means that the same CRI doesn’t mean same color rendering.

The Citizen’s Vivid LEDs make colors seem brighter with better color contrast. The spectrum of light has been designed to have as good as possible saturation. This way Vivid LEDs can render bold colors vividly. With better saturation, you can read easier for example newspaper under the Vivid LEDs.

Below you can see a picture where Vivid LEDs are compared. The higher the bar is, the better the color renders. The comparison is done to halogen bulb (0= halogen bulb performance).

Great use for Vivid LEDs are places where good color rendering and concentration is needed, for example, clothing and cosmetic stores, art galleries, schools, hospitals, and offices.

There are two different Vivid LEDs:

  • Brilliant Vivid – Very high color contrast.
  • Natural Vivid – High color contrast.

Vivid LEDs are meant to be combined. Use Brilliant Vivid as spotlights to bring color and textures up, and Natural Vivid as base light because it has better efficacy but has still very good color rendering and contrast.

Change the color temperature of light

Everyone is now talking about “human-centric” -lighting in the lighting industry. It means that by changing the color temperature you can maximize productivity and improve concentration or create comfortable atmospheric feeling. Citizen’s Tunable White is a great solution for “human-centric” -lighting. Its color temperature can be changed freely from 2700K to 6500K. This means that you can achieve warm light like incandescent lamp and daylight with only one module. In addition to changing the color temperature, you can also dim the brightness.

Early Tunable White products have been big sized modules. Citizen’s Tunable white is as small as the COB. This means that you can make a lot of smaller Tunable White luminaires than before. The small size also gives more even light. The spots between cool and warm dies are practically invisible, which guarantee more smoothly light.

By connecting Tunable White into the right control unit, you can change the color temperature and brightness according to the time of day.

Light that gets warmer by dimming

One of the features of the halogen lamp is that when dimmed its color temperature changes warm-toned. Citizen’s Dim-to-Warm COB-LED does the same thing.

Dim-to-Warm is a COB-LED, so you don’t need any complicated special features from the driver, like two-channeling or programming features. Ordinary triac dimmable driver is enough. Dim-to-Warm COB has preset dimming curve, so when you dim it, its color temperature changes automatically just like halogen.

I hope that this blog post gives you some new thoughts for designing the luminaires. When you use any of the LEDs that I just presented to you above, you’ll get a luminaire that has more to provide than just ordinary light source. This way you can have competitive advantage.

You can download presentation about Citizen LEDs below. If you have anything to ask, please do not hesitate to contact me. My email address is taru.matikainen@light.fi and I’m always happy to help you.

Download Here

Downsize your luminaire with new HC-series

New series of LED, Citizen High Current COB LED is now available. What is High Current COB LED or in other words HC-COB? What new possibilities does it give to us? I’m going to tell you all that in this blog post.

HC-COB is COB that has same LES and package sizes as the previous Citizen generations. Compared to previous generations the HC-COB has higher efficacy and Tc and wider wattage and lumen range.

With new Citizen HC-COB, you can achieve lots of great advantages compared to previous LED-generations. You can downsize luminaire or get more lumens with the same size of the luminaire. So, there’s a possibility to use it in different ways. Let’s get into that.

Downsize your luminaire

Luminaire downsizing has become a trend in the luminaire industry. Nowadays luminaire size must be as small as possible to design luminaires that are cost-effective with less visibility. In public spaces, track lights are in general use. When you downsize those luminaires, you get space that is more spacious and airy.

HC-LED has higher efficacy and maximum Tc. So, you don’t need so large cooling system with it. This means that you can use a smaller heatsink to downsize the luminaire. Same time you can reach same lumens as today.

Luminaire downsizing means that you can make big savings, for example in aluminum, logistics and packing. As a result, it makes HC-COB more environmental choice.

At the same time when luminaire gets smaller, you can reduce system cost of luminaire. Smaller heatsink is cheaper than the bigger one. And as I said before, we can make big saving in packing materials and logistics when luminaire gets smaller. See the diagram below about how you can save in luminaire system cost.

As a result, you can make lighter and cost-effective luminaires that are more environmentally friendly.

Here’s an example of luminaire downsizing. In this example, we are changing COB version 6 to HC-series. The result is that you can get even more lumens with less LEDs.

Get more lumens from your luminaire

What if you don’t want to downsize your luminaire? Do you want more lumens with the same luminaire? With HC-COB that is possible too.

When you keep the same heatsink or luminaire design and just change the LED to HC-COB, you can get more lumens. This gives you more lumen package options and flexibility in one luminaire design.

Let’s see an example if COB version 6 is replaced by HC-series.

As shown above, you can get even 17,8 % more lumens with HC-COB.

What kind of lumen packages does HC-COB offer?

  • 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4000K, 5000K and 6500K
  • Ra70, 80, 90, 97 and Below BBL
  • Lumen range from 500lm up to 77 000lm
  • Same size than previous COB generations

Are you interested in more technical information? Download datasheet below or contact to our specialist. We’ll be ready to help you.

Download Here

Dim-to-Warm – COB LED that dims like halogen

Dim-to-warm

Dim-to-Warm is COB LED which works like halogen lamp when dimmed. Its specialty is that when you dim it the color temperature gets warmer. Usually dimming does not affect the color temperature of the LED. Dim-to-Warm LED imitates the effect of the halogen lamp which gets warmer by dimming. With full power you can get color temperature 3100K and at lowest 1850K.

Dim-to-Warm LED suits especially highly for decorative luminaries, for example used in restaurants, hotels, cruise cabins and home interiors. It’s perfect for space where you want to have dimmed and warm toned atmospheric lighting.

LED has great advantage compared to an incandescent lamp. Its power consumption is less than 10% of the incandescent lamp’s power consumption.

The color temperature of candlelight, incandescent and halogen lamp.

The color temperature of candlelight, incandescent and halogen lamp.

 

There are seven different packages from 900 to 3000 lumens. You can download more information about the product here.

Where and how to use?

Dim-to-Warm LED is great for places where you want the light that dims like halogen or incandescent lamp. You can use it for example for restaurants, hotels, cruise cabins and decorative luminaires where you have been using halogens before.

It’s easy to use. You can use Dim-to-Warm LED for all the luminaires where you have been using COB LED or you can use it to replace led modules. All optics, lenses and reflectors that are compatible with COB LED, suit also for Dim-to-Warm LED. LES area is CLC20-series for 9,8 mm and at CLC30-series for 15,2 mm.

How Dim-to-Warm works?

As we know, usually LEDs don’t change the color when you dim them. They always retain approximately the same color temperature when the brightness is reduced. LED’s brightness depends on the current; reducing the current the brightness reduces.

Dim-to-Warm LED is made from cold and warm LED areas. It has an internal control circuit which dims the cooler area first and later starts to control current of the warm one.  The color temperature gets warmer when dimmed.  This way the dimming works similarly in incandescent or halogen lamp.

The diagram below shows how the color temperature gets warmer when led is dimmed down and the current and brightness reduces (black color). You can also compare it to halogen lamp (grey color).

 

Dim-to-Warm is a COB LED, so you don’t need any complicated special features from the driver, like two-channeling or programming features. Ordinary triac dimmable driver is enough. We have tested ELT’s DLC-drivers with it, and they have good compatibility.

Click the button below to download the datasheets and material. You can find more information and our product codes from the presentation. If you have any questions about Dim-to-Warm, please don’t hesitate to contact us.

Download Here

Why Heat Pipe is Better than Traditional Heat Sink?

You will need a heat sink when you use a COB LED in your luminaire. The traditional way of transferring the heat away from the light source is to use a passive aluminum heat sink. In this blog post, I’ll introduce you the new way of cooling: heat pipe.

Traditional heat sinks are based on the fact that aluminum transfers heat away from the light source. The higher the power of the LED is, the more you need aluminum.

This grows the luminaire’s size and makes it more expensive. The bigger size of the luminaire makes logistics costs go up and increases the price for end user even more.

We have a better solution for cooling high power LEDs without the need for noisy fans or heavy heat sinks.

Furukawa Heat Pipe (HYC Series)

Heat pipe technology is traditionally being used in computers and for example in satellites. But now it is available in lighting.

Furukawa HYC Series uses heat pipe technology to transfer the heat and makes heat sinks more efficient in cooling the LED.

how heat pipe works

Its thermal conductivity is almost 200 times better compared to copper. This also allows the heat sink to be a lot smaller than we are used to.

Smaller heat sink reduces the weight of the luminaire dramatically. This reduces transportation costs as well as the amount of other materials needed.

The Heat Pipe effectively transfers heat from the heat source and as a result makes the cooling faster than ever.

Unlike many Chinese manufacturers, Furukawa uses oxygen-free copper in its Heat Pipes, which means that their lifetime is over 20 years.

Heat Pipe vs. No Heat Pipe

Cooling with and without the Heat pipe

Save Money and Environment with our aLED Light Engine

aLED Engine

aLED Light Engine (Furukawa Heat Pipe + Citizen COB + optics + aLED Driver)

As a great example, I want to introduce you our own aLED Light engine that uses Furukawa heat pipe with Citizen COB. aLED Light Engine produces over 40 000 lm and weights only 1kg (without driver and optics). And only 3.6kg with optics and driver.

By combining Citizen COB and heat pipe technology, you can build luminaires that:

  • Produce a lot of light
  • Are light in weight and small in size
  • Save environment
  • Are completely recyclable

Furukawa Heat Pipes are compatible with Citizen CLU04x and CLU05x COB LEDs.

Download an example of different combinations and datasheets for custom models with screw holes for Citizen COBs.

Download Here

Why Should You Choose the New aLED Module

We redesigned our aLED-modules based on customer and market feedback. Here is  a brief explanation on what is different compared to previous version. And why I think you should consider using aLED modules.

 

Figure 1. New aLED Modules with examples of different connector locations.

Better efficacy (159-191 lm/W)

We upgraded the SMD LEDs used in the modules to better suit our customers’ needs. aLED modules now have efficacy from 159 lm/W to 190 lm/W. Efficacy depends on the color temperature and you can see the efficacy by CCT here:

  • 2700K (174 lm/W)
  • 3000K (177 lm/W)
  • 4000K (185 lm/W)
  • 5000K (191 lm/W)

Better placement of LEDs

We have changed the design of our aLED module. LEDs are now placed on the center line of the module so the installation of optics is easier.

aLED modules dimensions have also changed. New modules are now either 279.2 mm or 558.4 mm in length and 20 mm or 40 mm in width. 

Different options for connectors

It is now possible to order aLED modules with connectors either on the frontside or on the backside. Traditionally the connectors have been on the frontside, but these new backside connectors allow you to hide the wires behind the module and inside the profile.

For longer luminaires, there is a possibility to use backline, so you won’t need long wires. Short wires to connect multiple modules together will be enough (figure 2).

Figure 2. a) How to connect modules without back line option. b) How to utilize the back line option of the aLED modules.

Long lifetime

Thanks to the upgraded LED, the lifetime of aLED modules has also increased. You can see the lifetime prediction below. But to be brief: at maximum TC temperature (85°C) the lifetime (L70B50) is over 100.000 hours (figure 3).

Fikure 3. The lifetime of aLED Module (L70B50)

Friendly to environment

On top of high efficacy and the possibility to save energy, aLED modules are also recyclable. You can recycle all parts of module, even the PCB.

In addition to all these changes aLED modules prices have also dropped to more competitive level.

You can find the technical details of 4000K modules from the table below. You can download the datasheets of these new modules by clicking here.

Product Code Color Temperature (CCT) Color Rendering (Ra) Luminous Flux (lm) Forward Current (mA) Voltage (V) Power (W) Efficacy (lm/W) Length (mm) Width (mm)
CALOSNU0405 4000 80 1182 600 11.6 7.0 170 279.2 20
CALOSNU0410 4000 80 1224 600 11.0 6.6 185 279.2 20
CALOLNU0805 4000 80 2363 600 23.2 13.9 170 558.4 20
CALOLNU0810 4000 80 2448 600 22.1 13.3 185 558.4 20
CALOLHU1610 4000 80 4895 600 44.1 26.5 185 558.4 40
CALOSND0405 4000 80 1182 600 11.6 7.0 170 279.2 20
CALOSND0410 4000 80 1224 600 11.0 6.6 185 279.2 20
CALOLND0805 4000 80 2363 600 23.2 13.9 170 558.4 20
CALOLND0810 4000 80 2448 600 22.1 13.3 185 558.4 20
CALOLHD1610 4000 80 4895 600 44.1 26.5 185 558.4 40

 

Download Datasheets

 

In addition to these new models, all our previous module models are also still available.

How to Connect LED Modules into AC Network

In my earlier post I went through the procedure of how to physically connect a single LED component into an AC network. The connection was made between COB LED and the LED driver. When connecting LED modules (LED diodes assembled on the PCB board) you do it pretty much the same way with slight differences.

Connecting an SMD LED module into the AC network

As with a COB LED component, you will need a suitable driver for your module (see: how to choose a constant current LED driver).  You connect the positive terminals and the negative terminals of the LED driver and the LED module together to create a closed electrical circuit.

The difference to connecting a single LED component is that you may have to connect several LED modules into the same LED driver. In such case, you have to use series connection. This means that you still have to create a closed electrical circuit formed by the LED driver and these LED modules on the secondary side. You arrange the primary side like you would with single LED components. On the secondary size you connect the positive terminal of the first LED module (leftmost module in Figure 1) into the positive terminal of the LED driver. Then you connect the negative terminal of the last module (rightmost module in Figure 1) to the negative terminal of the LED driver. See Figure 1 below that shows all connections between the components.

Figure 1. Connection of LED modules into AC network through the driver.

How do you make other connections? Series connection means that you always connect the negative terminal of the previous array to the positive terminal of the following array in the chain. See again Figure 1. The output voltage of your LED driver defines how many LED modules you can drive with one driver. In case of Figure 1, one LED driver drives three LED modules. If voltage over LED module is for example 12V, the output voltage of the LED driver should exceed 36V. In the real world, you have to take into account tolerances. So in this case, 40V can be used as target for the driver maximum output voltage.

In the same way, you can connect multiple COB LEDs in series. This may be the case when you need vast amount of light.

How to actually do it?

As for physical connections of SMD LED modules, there are four options:

  1. PCB terminal block connectors
  2. Soldering
  3. Wire-to-board connectors
  4. Board-to-board connectors

PCB terminal block connectors are quite popular. They are soldered on the PCB board in the reflow process (in reflow oven) after the assembly process. You push the wires into those PCB terminal blocks in the same way as you would push the wires into the push-in terminals of solderless connectors in the single COB case.

Figure 2. PCB terminal block connector (2-pole)

Soldering is an option, if there are separate soldering pads reserved on the PCB to solder the wire(s) with tin. Soldering is usually a more cost effective option.

The numbers 3 and 4 are the special cases when you wish to interconnect two modules with each other. I’ll skip them for now and save them for later post.

If you’re interested in aLED’s new, improved LED modules, read more over here.

Feel free to drop a comment if you have questions on this topic.