Category Archives: How to

How to Connect LED Modules into AC Network

In my earlier post I went through the procedure of how to physically connect a single LED component into an AC network. The connection was made between COB LED and the LED driver. When connecting LED modules (LED diodes assembled on the PCB board) you do it pretty much the same way with slight differences.

Connecting an SMD LED module into the AC network

As with a COB LED component, you will need a suitable driver for your module (see: how to choose a constant current LED driver).  You connect the positive terminals and the negative terminals of the LED driver and the LED module together to create a closed electrical circuit.

The difference to connecting a single LED component is that you may have to connect several LED modules into the same LED driver. In such case, you have to use series connection. This means that you still have to create a closed electrical circuit formed by the LED driver and these LED modules on the secondary side. You arrange the primary side like you would with single LED components. On the secondary size you connect the positive terminal of the first LED module (leftmost module in Figure 1) into the positive terminal of the LED driver. Then you connect the negative terminal of the last module (rightmost module in Figure 1) to the negative terminal of the LED driver. See Figure 1 below that shows all connections between the components.

Figure 1. Connection of LED modules into AC network through the driver.

How do you make other connections? Series connection means that you always connect the negative terminal of the previous array to the positive terminal of the following array in the chain. See again Figure 1. The output voltage of your LED driver defines how many LED modules you can drive with one driver. In case of Figure 1, one LED driver drives three LED modules. If voltage over LED module is for example 12V, the output voltage of the LED driver should exceed 36V. In the real world, you have to take into account tolerances. So in this case, 40V can be used as target for the driver maximum output voltage.

In the same way, you can connect multiple COB LEDs in series. This may be the case when you need vast amount of light.

How to actually do it?

As for physical connections of SMD LED modules, there are four options:

  1. PCB terminal block connectors
  2. Soldering
  3. Wire-to-board connectors
  4. Board-to-board connectors

PCB terminal block connectors are quite popular. They are soldered on the PCB board in the reflow process (in reflow oven) after the assembly process. You push the wires into those PCB terminal blocks in the same way as you would push the wires into the push-in terminals of solderless connectors in the single COB case.

Figure 2. PCB terminal block connector (2-pole)

Soldering is an option, if there are separate soldering pads reserved on the PCB to solder the wire(s) with tin. Soldering is usually a more cost effective option.

The numbers 3 and 4 are the special cases when you wish to interconnect two modules with each other. I’ll skip them for now and save them for later post.

If you’re interested in aLED’s new, improved LED modules, read more over here.

Feel free to drop a comment if you have questions on this topic.

How to Connect a Single LED Component into AC Network

I have two blog posts for you focused on how you connect COB LED components into the electrical network. I mean, when you have either a single COB LED or an LED module based on SMD LED components assembled on a PCB board.

Compared to traditional lighting, connecting LEDs to the electrical network is a whole new world. LEDs need direct current (DC) to light them, alternating current (AC) will not work. There are also AC modules available but those are not covered here.

In this post I will concentrate on connecting single COB LEDs. In case you are interested in connecting LED modules, I will write about that in my next post.

LED driver

You will need an LED driver, which is actually an AC/DC converter. It converts the AC voltage/current of the electrical network into the suitable DC voltage/current needed by the LED component. You will find the requirements of the LED from a datasheet provided by the manufacturer. If you need help in choosing a driver, you can read our guide.

Figure 1. Example of an AC/DC converter, LED driver. This one is from ELT with dipswitches, which means that you can choose the driving current.

Connecting COB LED into the AC network

In case of COB, you will have to create a closed electrical circuit so that the electrical current can flow through the LED component. A COB LED is basically a diode in its electrical nature: the current can flow only in a forward mode. This means that you must connect the positive (+) solder pad of the COB LED into the positive terminal of the LED driver. In the same way, you connect the negative (-) solder pad of the COB LED into the negative terminal of the LED driver. See the Figure 2 below.

 

This way, you create the closed electrical circuit that is needed to feed current through the LED so that it gives light. This closed electrical circuit formed by the LED driver and the COB LED is called the secondary side of the LED driver. LED driver feeds the power and current into the closed electrical circuit, and thus through COB LED, on the secondary side.

 

Figure 2. COB-AC Network

 

On the primary side, the LED driver gets electrical power from electrical network, AC network. The terminals of the LED driver on the primary side are called line and neutral. They are connected into the line and neutral connections of the AC network. If you have an LED driver with cables, they are usually blue (neutral) and brown (line). Some drivers also have a ground terminal, which is usually connected to the luminaire body with grounding wire. However, the closed electrical circuit is needed also on the primary side; between the network and the driver.

Usually, you will need to use some kind of terminal block to connect the driver into the electrical network on the primary side.

Picture of a terminal block

Figure 3. The example of terminal block to connect the LED driver into the electrical network.

Two options

Finally, as for physically connecting a COB LED into the LED driver, you have two ways to do it:

  1. solder the wires on the solder pads of the COB
  2. use solderless connectors.

In the first method, you manually solder the wire by using soldering iron with high temperature that melts the soldering material such as tin. After cooling, there is a joint between the wire and the COB solder pad. You need two wires, one for plus and one for minus solder pad.

In the second method, you use a solderless connector.

Figure 4. The solderless connector.

The solderless connector does the same effect as the soldered wire. You need the electrical connection also in this method, but you won’t need to solder the wire by melting tin. You just push the wire into the push-in terminals of the connector. Again, positive to positive and negative to negative terminal. They are marked on the connector. Basically these push-in terminals work with a combination of metal plates and springs that then make the connection to the solder pad of the COB LED.

The difference between these methods is, that unlike with soldered joints, in the solderless connector method the springs may loosen a bit over time and loss of contact may occur. Solderless connectors are generally thought to be more expensive than manual soldering.  

In my next post I will go through the steps for connecting LED modules.

How to use Citizen LED simulator

Datasheets are essential part when you compare how different light sources work in your solution. Usually it can be time taking and exhausting to glance at datasheet and find values you are looking for. This gets even harder if you have multiple LEDs or different LED packages, which would mean that you have look at multiple datasheets to get different values.

This is the reason why Citizen has created a Citizen LED simulator. The simulator is very easy to use and makes comparing different LED packages a lot easier. If you haven’t yet tried it or you don’t have the simulator, you can download it for free from our website.

Citizen LED simulator basic view

Citizen LED simulator basic view.

The steps

Follow these steps to use the simulator.

You can choose desired CCT and Ra and selection simulator shows packages and product codes of existing products.

You can choose desired CCT and Ra and selection simulator shows packages and product codes of existing products.

  1. Select the CCT and Ra

First you need to select desired CCT and Ra from condition input field.

You can choose desired CCT and Ra and the selection simulator shows packages and product codes of existing products.

  1. Choose whether you want to search based on the desired lumen amount or driving current

After you have selected color temperature and CRI value, you can choose between driving current (forward current in simulator) or desired luminous flux.

  1. Input the Tc-temperature

Then you can input Tc-temperature. If you have no idea how much Tc is or would be in your solution, values around 60 degrees are realistic to use as many light sources reach temperatures close to that while being used.

Example

In this example, I have chosen that I want my LED to be 4000K, Ra80 Min. And I want to see what options we have to get around 3000 lumens out from luminaire. Luminaire optics etc. will drain around 300-400 lumens in my solution. So I have determined that I need 3400 warm lumens from LED and estimated that Tc-temperature is 60 degrees.

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I can see that I have ten different LED packages I can get the 3400 lumens from. In first column after product code you can see what current you should use to get these values. If you don’t have LED driver, in which you can choose output current, it is recommended to then select current value you have LED drivers available in. In this case, 700mA seems to be a good choice as many of the LED’s have driving current close to that.

So I change “forward current” instead of “luminous flux” from the condition input and insert 700mA.

LED packages which give you desired lumens with 700mA. We still have six options to choose from.

LED packages which give you desired lumens with 700mA. We still have six options to choose from.

This will give me a list of LEDs I can use with 700mA driver. And more importantly give me a good overview of LED packages that can give me my desired lumen amount. If you have problem that you can’t find driver with suitable current, you can contact me for help.

In this case, CLU028-1204 would suit my lumen need quite nicely and CLU048-1212, would probably be an overkill for this application. All the other options, might suit my solution although they give roughly 10% more lumens. Whether this is ok, depends really on my application and desired efficacy.

Other applications

Citizen LED simulator is also powerful tool to use when you want to see easily how much lumens you get when driving LED with different currents. Good example is that if you have LED driver which has different current options and flexible LED package, you can use only two components to realize many different lumen packages.

As an example I did this exercise with ELT 42W multicurrent LED-driver and Citizen CLU038-1205 LED package. This driver has option to select different driving currents with dipswitch. If we take Esko’s advice and look from driver datasheet, we can see that output voltage area is suitable from 500mA to 1000 mA.

Below you can see LED characteristics with different current. I have also added forward current column to make this table easier to read. Tc temperature is 60 degrees in all cases.

Table with CLU038-1205 4000K Ra80 LED from 500mA to 1000mA.

Table with CLU038-1205 4000K Ra80 LED from 500mA to 1000mA.

You can also use the LED simulator to estimate the amount of lumens lost due to your luminaire (optics etc.). If you measure LED Tc-point and input the driving current you use to simulator, you should have pretty good estimation that how much lumens you should get out from your luminaire.

If you find out that the loss is too big, the you can either change the LED to a different package or improve the optics of your luminaire.As you can see, you can use this driver & LED combo for a luminaire from ~2500lm to ~5000lm.

Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions.

You can download the latest simulator below.

Download COB Selection Simulator

 

How to Choose Constant Current LED Driver for your Application [Infographic]

The selection of Constant Current driver is not always that simple, Esko wrote a post about it some time ago. You can read that here.

Below you can find an infographic about the same topic. If you like it, feel free to share.

How To Choose Constant Current Driver [Infograpgh]

How To Choose Constant Current Driver [Infographic]

Here is a link to our Lightbuilder.

How to Choose a Suitable Constant Voltage LED Driver for Your Application

We discussed earlier about general characteristics of LED drivers and how to choose a suitable constant current LED driver for your application.  Now, I’m going to tell you how to choose a right LED driver for your constant voltage application.  As told in the previous posts, LED drivers are divided into two different categories: constant current and constant voltage drivers. But that is not the only thing you have to take into account when selecting the driver. In this post, we are focusing in constant voltage drivers.

Constant voltage drivers are generally used when you need a stabile voltage fed to your LED. You can check the datasheet of your light source whether it needs constant current or constant voltage. If it says for example 12V or 24 V, then it needs constant voltage. And for example 350 mA or 700mA means that you need a constant current driver. Constant voltage driver (power supply) keeps voltage constant (e.g. as 12 V DC), but feeding current varies according to the load (the higher the load the bigger the current)

Datasheet of Constant Current and Constant Voltage LED Module. The circled value tells you does the module need constant current or constant voltage.

Datasheet of Constant Current and Constant Voltage LED Module. The circled value tells you does the module need constant current or constant voltage.

With these easy step-by-step instructions, you will find a suitable driver for your luminaire or signage application.

Step one: What voltage does your LED application need?

As already mentioned, you should find the voltage that your LED needs, from the datasheet or from the product itself.  For example if your LED needs a voltage of 12 V, you should find a driver with 12 V DC output voltage. If LED demands 24V, you should find a driver with 24 V DC output voltage. So that is pretty straightforward.

Step two: How powerful driver do you need?

The power consumption of the LED application can also be found from the datasheet or from the value label in the product.

Remember that if using multiple LED components, you have to find a driver that can feed all the LED components in your luminaire (in parallel connection).

 

GE Lightech 12W, 12V LED driver

GE Lightech 12W, 12V LED driver

Step three: What current range you need from the driver?

Again take a look at the datasheet and check the current of the LED application. If you have multiple LEDs, you should add the current together. Then you should find a driver with a current range that your LEDs fit into.  On the other hand if you have checked well the power you need then your driver will give enough current to get your LED application burn on the right level.

And in some constant voltage LED applications the current is not mentioned at all, only the voltage and the power. Then you can skip this part.

Step four: Do you need dimming? And what type of dimming?

A need for dimming is mainly dependent of the specification of your LED application. If you don’t need dimming, a normal on/off driver is enough for you. If you need dimming, there are many different types of dimming, but that is a topic for another post.  But e.g. in signage applications dimming is not normally required.

Step five: What are the physical dimensions the driver has to fit into?

You should also consider if there are some limitations for the physical dimensions of the driver. These will obviously have an impact on your driver selection. You will generally find the physical dimensions of the driver from its datasheet.

Step six: is the driver placed inside the LED application or outside (built in or independent version)?

If the driver is placed outside the LED application without any fixing the driver should be classified as an independent version. This means that the input and output cables of LED driver have strain reliefs to secure safe cable connections in case of any pulling force.

Step seven: What kind of environment the LED application is used in?

Where is your LED application designed to be used in? If it is designed for indoor use, then you probably won’t need to think about IP-classification so much. Of course if the luminaire is used in a room with a lot of dust or moisture, this has to be taken into account.

And for outdoor use check that the product is approved for min IP67 area.

GE Lightech 200 W 12V, IP67 driver

GE Lightech 200 W 12V, IP67 driver

IP20 class drivers it means that this driver can be used in indoor lighting applications but hardly stands harsh conditions in outdoor lighting unless the luminaire itself is waterproof thus protecting the driver.

But when designing a luminaire to outdoor use, then you should check that that the driver has good enough IP-class.

Usually IP67 drivers are heavier in weight, driver electronics is molded in many cases with plastic (e.g. potted) and the electrical throughputs of the wires both on primary voltage and the secondary voltage side are sealed with required protection against moisture.

Step eight: Approvals, is the driver suited for European or American standards?

Does the driver have any approvals? And are the approvals for Europe (ENEC), America (UL) or for another area? This can generally be found from the datasheet of the driver. In most cases it is the benefit of both the customer and supplier that drivers are certified for that area where they are used.

ROAL Strato CV 24V with ENEC and UL approvals

ROAL Strato CV 24V with ENEC and UL approvals

So there you have it. With these steps you should be able to find a suitable LED driver for your application. If you don’t, please leave a comment or contact me directly.

How to Construct a LED Luminaire  

There are many aspects that have to be taken into account when constructing a LED luminaire. In this post I will give you some tips how to build a LED luminaire and which things have to be considered.

There are five steps for designing LED luminaires:

  1. The definition of lighting requirements; how much you need light in certain environment/space.
  2. Defining some design constraints and special requirements, for example related to optics or withstanding high temperatures.
  3. Optical, thermal or electrical design.
  4. The number of LED components is then calculated based on the lumen quantity defined in the specification.
  5. Finally, all components to construct the final luminaire, or prototype in the first stage, have to be defined and specified.

In this post, we concentrate on this last step, how to construct LED luminaires from lighting components rather than the step-by-step luminaire design process itself.

When you start the construction of a luminaire from lighting components, the first thing that you should decide is which kind of LED you use in your luminaire. Basically there are three different options:

  • High-power COB LEDs
  • Mid-power LEDs
  • Low-power SMD LED diodes.

In this post, I’ve divided the options to two different groups: high-power COB LEDs and mid- and low-power LEDs, which usually are SMD LED components.

High-power LEDs

COB Luminaire

Luminaire using Citizen COB LED

High-power LED option comes usually into question when there is a need for large luminous output. Citizen Electronics’ COBs are powered from 3W COB to 80W COB with typical power consumption values. The luminous flux ranges from about 100 lumens to 13 000 lumens with typical current and even to nearly 20 000 lumens with maximum operating conditions. When constructing a luminaire using COB LEDs there is a need for some kind of heat management because of large power density on small area that has to be conducted away from COB LED. The power density can be even 22 W/cm2 on light emitting area of about 8.5 cm2. Many times price target sets the limit for cooling, and active cooling methods can’t be used. This requires the use of passive heat management. In another words, you need some kind of heat sink. Typical material is some aluminum alloy with a fin-shaped structure in order to increase the overall surface area of the heat sink element. Additionally, some kind of thermal paste or other thermal interface material is inserted between the LED and heat sink in order to increase heat conduction from the LED to the heat sink and ultimately to the luminaire body.

Of course you need also LED driver to feed electric current to the COB. When talked about COB LEDs, many times you can drive only one or two LEDs with the same driver. Esko Väisänen explained the selection process of LED driver in his post: How to choose the right LED driver.

In addition to the COB LED and the LED driver, you may also need some optics, such as lens or reflector to increase light quality coming out of your luminaire. Current feeding to your COB LED can be realized either by soldering wires to the COB or using special sockets or connectors to supply power to the LED.

Mid-power and low-power LED

LED Module, which can be used in luminaire needing good light distribution.

LED Module, which can be used in luminaire needing good light distribution.

When constructing a luminaire using mid-power or small-power LEDs, heat management is not such a big problem as in the case of high-power LEDs. Normally the key target for luminaires using mid- or small-power LEDs is the light distribution or color consistency. Applications range from store lighting through emergency lights to decorative lighting, even to LED bulbs. Diffuser plates, for example opal diffuser or prismatic diffuser, can be used in these kinds of luminaires. The luminaire in which small- or mid-power LEDs are used include usually PCBs. The alternatives are usually FR-4 or aluminum metal-core PCB (MCPCB) on which SMD LED diodes are assembled. Usually, if the total power consumption of the LED module exceeds 10W, the aluminum MCPCB is used in order to better conduct heat away from the PCB. Depending on the case, some kind of extra aluminum profile can be used to conduct heat away. If the luminaire has a closed structure, you should also take care of the heat inside the closed luminaire. Heat should be distributed and conducted away from the LED so that the LED does not get too hot. FR-4 can be used for lower power modules by using enough copper pour to spread heat uniformly. FR-4 boards are also cheaper than aluminum PCBs and are used if price becomes the key issue and power consumption is not the problem. In addition to the PCB and the LED diodes some kind of connectors are necessary to connect the LEDs into the outer world electrically.

Also these luminaires need a LED driver to give current to LED components. In addition to heat formed inside the LED components themselves, heat forms also in the LED driver operation. This causes problems if the luminaire structure is closed as discussed earlier. If you use many modules within one luminaire, you will need some kind of cabling between the modules. When designing for example a linear luminaire, there may be a need for some cabling throughput. This will usually mean that cabling has to go on the other side through some plastic or metallic profile. Some additional screw holes may be possibly needed for attaching the metallic profile into the luminaire body.

If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to leave them on the comments field.

How to choose suitable Constant Current LED driver for your application

Selection of LED Drivers

Selection of LED Drivers

We discussed earlier about the general characteristics of LED drivers. In this post, I’m going to tell you how to choose a right LED driver for your application. LED drivers are divided into two different categories: constant current and constant voltage drivers. But that is not the only thing you have to take into account when selecting the driver. In this post, we are focusing only in constant current drivers.

Constant current drivers are generally used when you need stabile current fed to your LED. With constant current driver, it is easier to manage the right brightness. You can check the datasheet of your light source whether it needs constant current or constant voltage. If it says for example 350mA, then it needs constant current. 12V or 24V means that you need a constant voltage driver.

In this post, we’ll take a look at constant current drivers.

How to choose a constant current driver for your application?

With these step by step instructions, you will find a suitable driver for your luminaire.

Step one: What forward current does your LED need?

As already mentioned, you should find the forward current your LED needs, from the datasheet. For example if your LED needs a current of 350mA, you should try to find a driver with 350mA output current.

Step two: How powerful driver do you need

The power consumption of the LED can also be found from the datasheet or at least it can be calculated with the data in the datasheet. The power consumption can be calculated by multiplying typical driving current value by typical forward voltage value that both can be found in the LED data sheet. Sometimes you can even find the power consumption directly from the datasheet.

Remember that if using multiple LED components, you have to find a driver that can feed all the LED components in your luminaire.

ELT 10W, 500mA LED driver

ELT 10W, 500mA LED driver

Step three: What output voltage range you need from the driver
Again take a look at the datasheet and check the voltage of the LED. If you have multiple LEDs, you should add the voltages together. Then you should find a driver with a voltage range that your LEDs fit into.

Step four: Do you need dimming? And what type of dimming?

A need for dimming is mainly dependent of the specification of your luminaire. If you don’t need dimming, a normal on/off driver is enough for you. If you need dimming, there are many different types of dimming, but that is a topic for another post.

Step five: What are the physical dimensions the driver has to fit into?

You should also consider if there are some limitations for the physical dimensions of the driver. These will obviously have an impact on your driver selection. You will generally find the physical dimensions of the driver from its datasheet.

Step six: What kind of environment the luminaire is used in?

Where is your luminaire designed to be used in? If it is designed to indoor use, then you probably won’t need to think about IP-classification so much. Of course if the luminaire is used in a room with a lot of dust or moisture, this has to be taken into account.

ELT 60W, 700mA, IP20 driver

ELT 60W, 700mA, IP20 driver

IP20 class drivers it means that this driver can be used in indoor lighting applications but hardly stands harsh conditions in outdoor lighting unless the luminaire itself is waterproof thus protecting the driver.

But when designing a luminaire to outdoor use, then you should check that that the driver has good enough IP-class.

Usually IP67 drivers are heavier in weight, driver electronics is molded with plastic (e.g. potted) and the electrical throughputs of the wires both on primary voltage and the secondary voltage side are sealed with required protection against moisture.

ELT 10W, 350mA, IP67 driver

ELT 10W, 350mA, IP67 driver

Step seven: Approvals, is the driver suited for European or American standards?

Does the driver have any approvals? And are the approvals for Europe (ENEC) or America (UL). This can generally be found from the datasheet of the driver.

So there you have it. With these steps you should be able to find a suitable LED driver for your application. If you don’t, please leave a comment or contact me directly.

You can also use our Light Builder to select a driver.

How to choose the right LED?

 

There are tons of different LEDs even in one manufacturer’s selection so how on earth can you find the right LED for your solution?

In my previous post I discussed about the basic characteristics and operation principles of LEDs. In this post I will discuss about different packages and about the facts that will probably have an impact on your selection.

I will divide LED light sources into three categories:

  • SMD LEDs
  • COB LEDs
  • LED Modules

I will now look more closely on these three categories before we jump into the actual selection.

SMD LEDs

SMD LED

Citizen CLL600 – Example of SMD LED

SMD LEDs are small diodes used in LED modules. They have to be assembled on printed circuit board (PCB). Generally they allow you to design any kind of luminaire and allow you to make uniform light source. On the downside, SMD LEDs always require them to be assembled on a PCB.

 

 

COB LEDs

COB LED

Citizen CLL052 – Example of COB LED

COB = chip-on-board. COB is a small package that combines many diodes as a one light source.  COBs have generally small dimensions and produce a lot of lumens. You can attach COB directly to the heat sink, which allows excellent heat management.  COBs don’t need a lot room in the luminaire fittings and are therefore well suited for luminaires with small room for light source.

LED Modules

LED-modules

Example of LED modules – Linear and rounded

LED Modules are made of SMD LEDs and PCB. LED distributors offer standard modules which in general are made for the common need. For example we have different sizes of linear modules as well as rounded modules. These modules have a certain lumen package which remains the same from LED generation to another. This enables lighting manufacturer to update their luminaires with more efficient LEDs. If you can’t find a suitable LED module for your application, you can always contact a manufacturer and ask them to design a custom module for you.

 

How to know where to start

The main thing that has an impact on your LED selection is, obviously, the type of luminaire you are manufacturing.  If you are transforming an old luminaire into an LED luminaire, then you will probably have some demands on the physical dimensions of LED.

For example, if you have a T5 or T8 fluorescent lamp, you will need a light source that

a) gives you linear light
b) gives you uniform light
c) fits in to the old luminaire’s body

If you are not restricted by physical dimensions, then you have a lot more options.  For example if you are building a whole new luminaire, the physical dimensions are not so critical. Or at least you get to decide what are the physical dimensions the LED needs to fit into.

COB Luminaire

Luminaire using Citizen COB LED

The other important criteria for LEDs is the amount of lumens you need. You might have an older luminaire that you need to replace, so ideally you would want as much light as the old one produces. So for example, if you have a 120cm fluorescent lamp and it produces 2700 lumen you will want a light source that:

a) fits into the 120 cm long body
b) gives you uniform and linear light
c) gives you  enough light (you won’t necessarily need 2000lm if you have better optical efficiency)

So in this example, you could use for example two modules that are less than 600mm in length and produce 1000lm each. Or you could use smaller modules, for example four modules that are less than 300mm in length and produce 500lm each.  As you may have noticed this selection does not give you the same amount of lumens from light source, but you will still get the same amount of lumens out of the luminaire.

Then there are obviously the color rendering index (CRI) and color temperature (CCT), both of which are mainly depending on the application of your luminaire. For example if you are building a luminaire for a clothing store or an art gallery, you will probably want as high color rendering as possible. On the other hand if you are manufacturing a street light, you probably won’t care about CRI so much.

If you need any help with selecting the LED, or if you disagree with any of my views, you can share your thoughts on the comments below.