Category Archives: Uncategorized

Arrant-Light Oy Wishes Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

Image: Arrant-Light Oy celebrating 35th anniversary in Milan, Italy. 

Dear Customers and Partners,

It is the time of the year again where we can wind down and enjoy this year’s achievements with family and friends. All our customers and partners are part of the Arrant-Light family. Without you all, we would not exist.

There were lot of happenings in 2019, but to Arrant-Light Oy the highlight was our company celebrating its 35th Anniversary in November. I clearly remember, when my father Tarmo started contemplating about founding his own company and ended he up taking that brave leap. He always had the drive to develop and bring the most efficient, advanced and long-lasting products to the markets and the customers. By founding his own company, he was able to carry out his own visions and ideas and further them on his own terms.

We continue to strive to uphold the teachings and traditions he has given us. This is one of the reasons why we have been able to maintain the relationship with some of the customers and partners from the very beginning. This reflects well, how to us, the customers, their needs and satisfaction has always been a priority in everything we do.

We have channeled our Christmas gift funds to charity this year again. Through the SaveThe Children -foundation, we are supporting the youth education and through the Scout District we are donating the opportunity to attend the Otava 2020 camp in Turku Archipelago next summer to a few children from less fortunate families.

Once more, I would like to thank all our customers and partners for a successful year and on behalf of myself and the company to wish Happy holidays and success for the coming year 2020.

Best wishes,
Janne Mäkinen

5 ways to reduce packaging waste and make them more user-friendly

Recycling of the carton boxes

To us, it’s very important how the components that we import have been packed. Our aim is to minimize the excess packaging waste, to avoid plastic and to design a packaging that is user-friendly, easy and effortless to handle. The same goes with our components as well. In this blog post, I will be explaining 5 ways, how we minimize the amount of waste in our packaging and make them easier to use.

1. No excess plastic

It’s easy to use bubble wrap to protect the products for shipping. How ever, we prefer to favor alternative methods, so the packaging will produce the least amount of waste. For the past few years, we have brainstormed with our suppliers on how to minimize the amount of plastic in packaging. For example, from now on, our products will not be packed in individual plastic bags.

2. The packaging materials must be easy to recycle

Sometimes cardboard packages have been stapled with metal staples, which makes recycling more difficult. We opt to use plastic- or paper tape to secure them instead.

3. No wasted space in packages

Transporting air across the globe is very un-ecological and expensive. That is why we want our packages to contain the products, and not packaging waste and air. This is an efficient way to reduce shipping costs. We also ask our suppliers to pack the drivers directly into boxes, without individual packaging.

Picture of the 60W Lifud driver

Lifud 60W driver without the strain relieves

4. No excessive waste

The use of strain relieves in drivers divides the opinions and to some luminaire manufacturers, they are just waste. Therefore, it is possible to choose to order the majority of our drivers with or without the strain relieves. This is another way to reduce the amount of waste.

5. Stickers – the solution for easier storage

As well as the packaging materials, we have made our products more user-friendly with stickers. For example, our aLED-cooling element cartons have stickers on the side with a picture of the product and the key information. These make storing easier when the products are easily found.

Logo of the Lifud brand

Arrant-Light Oy is the new official distributor of the Lifud-drivers in Scandinavia and Russia. The Lifud drivers we import has customized packaging without excessive plastic. The original plastic trays have been replaced with cardboard option, and the drivers are not individually packaged. This way the luminaire manufacturer doesn’t need to worry about the high quantity of waste from the packaging materials of the components, therefore speeding up the production process.

Do you want know more about the Lifud drivers and what we have in our selection? You can visit to see the whole selection. Send a request about the products to or by calling +358 20 246 2300

Have you read our blog about the sustainability of our components? You can read it here.

Season’s Greetings From Arrant-Light Oy

Dear Customers and Partners,

It has come again the time of the year when all jobs have been done and it is time to spend a peaceful and relaxing Christmas holiday with our families.

Past year has been globally very unstable and time of the big changes. It feels like everything has changed and we are starting to live in the other world than we are used to do. One of the biggest news has been alerting information of global warming and how fast the climate has already changed and will be changing. We as companies and persons working at the lighting business, we are in the positions where we can do a lot to make our products more efficient and require better quality. That way we can make our part to moderate climate change and help the Earth to save. Our future choices can be a big and important part of this huge and needed change in the world.

We at Arrant-Light Oy have done this year a lot of work to find out how we can make our products more efficient and give them longer lifetime. We have also done many studies and investments what comes to the packing materials. We should think of how we can make them better recyclable and how we can avoid using the unnecessary plastic on it. It is a benefit of all of us, that we try to use every day higher quality, higher efficient, and eco-friendly parts and components in our products. I hope that in the future we can have together open discussion of these topics and make together our products all the time better and better and that way get them meet today’s environmental requirements.

As many years earlier, we have used our Christmas present funds for the Save the Children Organization. Donated funds will be used for local young people who need economical support to finish their studies and help them to go forward in their life.   
It is again our pleasure to thank all of you for the past year 2018 and for the good co-operation.

I wish You a peaceful Christmas Holiday time and all the success for coming Year 2019.


Janne Mäkinen
Managing Director

What is OLED in Lighting?

OLED means Organic Light Emitting Diode.  It works in similar way than (semiconductor) LED. Both need positive and negative charge carriers to generate electrical current and finally generate light.

It is a surface light source based on organic material layers. LED, on the other hand, is a point light source that is based on semiconductor materials. But the operation is based on the same principle.

OLED as Surface Light

OLED as Surface Light

The large-area LED modules, that are covered by opal diffuser, are basically similar light sources as OLED panels. Without this diffuser, these LED modules also are point light sources because of small SMD LED diodes they have on their surface.

OLED panels are surface light sources by nature. They give uniform light.

The benefits OLED:

  • Its light has spectral power distribution very close to sunlight.
  • Color rendering index (CRI) of 90.
  • Produces no glare
  • Produces very little heat(<35°C),
  • Doesn’t produce any UV and therefore it doesn’t cause blue light hazard risk.
  • Panels are thin and lightweight.
  • Simple light: panels don’t need many accessories unlike LED, such as heat sinks, diffusers, or other optics. It only needs the power source and the light source itself.

    Spectrum of OLED

    Spectrum of OLED

Structure of OLED

The OLED structure consists of layers. These layers have different purposes.

There are basically THREE different kinds of layers that have some purpose. Of course, you need anode and cathode terminals to bring electricity from outside world to the panel. As an example, LG Display uses Aluminium as cathode material and ITO (indium tin oxide) as their anode material.

  • Light generation layer: Emissive Layer (EML). Generates light.
  • Electrical current flow guidance: Electron Transport Layer (ETL), Hole Transport Layer (HTL) and Hole Injection Layer (HIL). These layers are used to transport charge carriers in optimal way to the light generation layer, EML. But also, they have to be optically suitable for light generated in the EML layer so that as much light as possible is extracted from the panel.
  • Third type of layer: Encapsulation. The encapsulation layer is used to protect inner optically active layers from any outside harm that could deteriorate the operation of the panel.

This kind of set of layers is called a stack.On top of the stack is the encapsulation layer.

OLED Structure

OLED Structure

For example, LG Display uses two-stack structure for 3000K and 4000K OLED panels and three-stack structure for 2700K panels. Because there are more stacks in 2700K version, the overall voltage over the panel is a bit higher.


One major problem with the organic materials is that they are very sensitive to oxygen and moisture. This means that OLED panels need to be protected – as even a single water or oxygen molecule can harm the panel.

The encapsulation layer also protects from minor physical impacts. If this encapsulation layer deteriorates it will affect the optical layers. Usually strong glass is used for rigid OLED panels. But flexible panel is gaining more and more popularity. Flexible panels use plastic.



The major drawbacks of OLED panels are:

  1. Easy to break

At the moment, most panels use glass substrates. These substrates are very fragile and are easy to break when not handled with care. This will improve in future as technology develops and plastic substrates will gradually replace glass.

  1. Cold endurance

You can’t use the panels in temperature of under 0 degrees of Celsius. This will obviously place some constraints for the use.

It is very probable that the cold endurance will get better in the future as the technology develops.

  1. Technological immaturity

OLED is still very young technology and it can’t produce very large amounts of light. It also loses to LED in luminous efficacy.

This will obviously improve in the future as manufacturers are investing in new product facilities.


As a surface-type lighting element, OLED can be used in different kinds of interior designs. It can give the background or accent/ambient lighting for example some artworks or other objects.

OLED as an Accent Light

OLED as an Accent Light

Basically, new application areas are up to you.

You can find and download ideas about OLED lighting from our website.


FAQ: OLED – Panels

From this post, you can find the most frequently asked questions related to OLED panels. The post will be updated in the future if new questions arise.

Q: What is OLED? Does it work in the same way as LED?

A: OLED means Organic Light Emitting Diode. It works in similar way than (semiconductor) LED. Both need positive and negative charge carriers to generate electrical current and finally generate light.

OLED Structure


You can read about the structure and tehnology of OLED from my other blog post.

Q: How OLED panel is attached on the surface/profile that is used in the luminaire?

A: The panel can be attached in many ways, but most common way  is to use adhesives. The screw connection is not recommended for panels.

Every panel manufacturer should have a list of adhesives that are not allowed with their products.

Q: How the to handle OLED panels?

A: You must handle them with care. At the moment most panels use glass substrates and because the panels are very thin, they break very easily. In the future, plastic substrates will replace the glass substrates. This will obviously decrease the risk of breaking the panel.

You can find more exact instructions on handling the panel from the datasheet of the panel.

Q: Can you bend the OLED panel because it is so thin?

Bendable OLED Panel in Luminaire

Bendable Panel in Luminaire

A: You can’t bend the glass substrate panels.

Plastic panels are ok to bend. There is a limited bending radius that can be found from the datasheet. Within that limit, you can bend the plastic panels almost endlessly.

Q: How you connect the OLED panels if you want to light many panels at time?

A: You can drive many panels by connecting them electrically in series. So you have the same current going through each panel and you get the same luminous output for each panel if they are the same products. Thus you can drive for example 4-panel luminaire with one driver as long as the voltage range of the driver allows you to do so.

Q: Which temperature range is allowed for OLED panels?

A: Basically, OLED lighting can be used only in indoor lighting at the moment. For example, LG Display informs in the datasheets of their panels, that operating temperature has to be over zero degrees of Celsius, and this applies also to storage temperature. Only transport temperature can be lower than zero degrees of Celsius, but only for a limited time.

Typical recommended operating temperature range is 0..40°C.

Q: What kind of new application can be done with OLED?

A: One interesting application is so-called transparent connection. In this case the panel is attached inside a glass plate. The current/power is then provided to the panel through metal mesh transparent conductive film.

OLED Transparent Connection

Transparent Connection

You can find and download ideas about OLED lighting from our website.

How to select modules + driver package

In this blog post we concentrate on how to design a LED lighting package as a whole. And what different aspects you will have to take into account when selecting a light source and a driver.
I decided to write this as a case example so that the post is more concrete.

Most of the luminaire projects starts with the need for certain amount of lumen needed out from the luminaire. Then there can also be requirements for the shape and size for the light source. Color temperature, color rendering and lifetime expectancy might also be critical, but those are topics for a blog posts of their own.

LED Modules

LED Module

Case example

So in this case you have specified that the luminaire needs to achieve:

  • Lumen output 2000lm
  • Color Temperature 4000K
  • Ra(min)80
  • Lifetime 50 000 hours (LM70 for the whole luminaire)
  • Efficacy >120lm/W
  • Linear light source. Max length of 120cm

With these specifications, the finding of the suitable solution shouldn’t be a problem.
There are, however few things that have to be taken into account when looking at the data of LED modules:

  1. Lumen output: Some of the lumens from the light source will be lost due to the optics. The amount of lost lumens is around 10%. Therefore, you should look for light sources that can give you at least 10% more lumens than you need.
  2. The shape of the light source. Do you have a minimum size for the light emitting surface? The luminaire in this example can be built with modules around 30cm in length, but that would probably not be perfect fit your luminaire. It would leave a lot of empty space and the light distribution wouldn’t be even.

With those two in mind, you would need a light source that gives you roughly 2200lm and fills the whole 120cm evenly. That could be reached with for example 4 modules with lumen output of 550lm and length of 30cm or with two modules with 1000lm output and length of 60cm.

Selection of LED Drivers

Selection of LED Drivers

The Driver

For the case study presented above, you still have one more step to go: choosing a LED driver. Esko already wrote a good guide on this, so I’m going to be brief.

Before we can start, you have to specify one thing: How many LED modules do you want to drive with one LED driver? Only one module or several modules in series?

In this example you would probably want to drive all the modules with just one driver. This might be the case with all luminaires. In more complex lighting systems you might use several drivers. To find a suitable driver you will need to:

  1. Check the current that you want to drive your light source(or sources) with.
  2. Check the voltage of your light source (or sources) and check that it fits the driver’s voltage range.

You should always leave some room for the voltage as there might be some variations in the diodes. Check that the driver has around 10% lower minimum voltage and 10% higher maximum voltage than your light source.

So there you have it in brief. If you need more help or would like to leave a comment, please leave a comment or contact me!

You can also use our free tool to build your luminaire.

How to Choose a Suitable Constant Voltage LED Driver for Your Application

We discussed earlier about general characteristics of LED drivers and how to choose a suitable constant current LED driver for your application.  Now, I’m going to tell you how to choose a right LED driver for your constant voltage application.  As told in the previous posts, LED drivers are divided into two different categories: constant current and constant voltage drivers. But that is not the only thing you have to take into account when selecting the driver. In this post, we are focusing in constant voltage drivers.

Constant voltage drivers are generally used when you need a stabile voltage fed to your LED. You can check the datasheet of your light source whether it needs constant current or constant voltage. If it says for example 12V or 24 V, then it needs constant voltage. And for example 350 mA or 700mA means that you need a constant current driver. Constant voltage driver (power supply) keeps voltage constant (e.g. as 12 V DC), but feeding current varies according to the load (the higher the load the bigger the current)

Datasheet of Constant Current and Constant Voltage LED Module. The circled value tells you does the module need constant current or constant voltage.

Datasheet of Constant Current and Constant Voltage LED Module. The circled value tells you does the module need constant current or constant voltage.

With these easy step-by-step instructions, you will find a suitable driver for your luminaire or signage application.

Step one: What voltage does your LED application need?

As already mentioned, you should find the voltage that your LED needs, from the datasheet or from the product itself.  For example if your LED needs a voltage of 12 V, you should find a driver with 12 V DC output voltage. If LED demands 24V, you should find a driver with 24 V DC output voltage. So that is pretty straightforward.

Step two: How powerful driver do you need?

The power consumption of the LED application can also be found from the datasheet or from the value label in the product.

Remember that if using multiple LED components, you have to find a driver that can feed all the LED components in your luminaire (in parallel connection).


GE Lightech 12W, 12V LED driver

GE Lightech 12W, 12V LED driver

Step three: What current range you need from the driver?

Again take a look at the datasheet and check the current of the LED application. If you have multiple LEDs, you should add the current together. Then you should find a driver with a current range that your LEDs fit into.  On the other hand if you have checked well the power you need then your driver will give enough current to get your LED application burn on the right level.

And in some constant voltage LED applications the current is not mentioned at all, only the voltage and the power. Then you can skip this part.

Step four: Do you need dimming? And what type of dimming?

A need for dimming is mainly dependent of the specification of your LED application. If you don’t need dimming, a normal on/off driver is enough for you. If you need dimming, there are many different types of dimming, but that is a topic for another post.  But e.g. in signage applications dimming is not normally required.

Step five: What are the physical dimensions the driver has to fit into?

You should also consider if there are some limitations for the physical dimensions of the driver. These will obviously have an impact on your driver selection. You will generally find the physical dimensions of the driver from its datasheet.

Step six: is the driver placed inside the LED application or outside (built in or independent version)?

If the driver is placed outside the LED application without any fixing the driver should be classified as an independent version. This means that the input and output cables of LED driver have strain reliefs to secure safe cable connections in case of any pulling force.

Step seven: What kind of environment the LED application is used in?

Where is your LED application designed to be used in? If it is designed for indoor use, then you probably won’t need to think about IP-classification so much. Of course if the luminaire is used in a room with a lot of dust or moisture, this has to be taken into account.

And for outdoor use check that the product is approved for min IP67 area.

GE Lightech 200 W 12V, IP67 driver

GE Lightech 200 W 12V, IP67 driver

IP20 class drivers it means that this driver can be used in indoor lighting applications but hardly stands harsh conditions in outdoor lighting unless the luminaire itself is waterproof thus protecting the driver.

But when designing a luminaire to outdoor use, then you should check that that the driver has good enough IP-class.

Usually IP67 drivers are heavier in weight, driver electronics is molded in many cases with plastic (e.g. potted) and the electrical throughputs of the wires both on primary voltage and the secondary voltage side are sealed with required protection against moisture.

Step eight: Approvals, is the driver suited for European or American standards?

Does the driver have any approvals? And are the approvals for Europe (ENEC), America (UL) or for another area? This can generally be found from the datasheet of the driver. In most cases it is the benefit of both the customer and supplier that drivers are certified for that area where they are used.

ROAL Strato CV 24V with ENEC and UL approvals

ROAL Strato CV 24V with ENEC and UL approvals

So there you have it. With these steps you should be able to find a suitable LED driver for your application. If you don’t, please leave a comment or contact me directly.

Letter For Customers and Partners

Janne Mäkinen, Managing Director, Arrant-Light

Janne Mäkinen

I am very pleased to be writing this letter to our customers and partners – and to thank all of you who have trusted us over these past 30 years, helping us to sustain and grow the company.

The history of Arrant-Light Oy dates back 30 years to when my father, Tarmo Mäkinen, founded the company in 1984. The company initially focused on long-life fluorescent lamps and light bulbs, and very early on began offering a group replacement service for large companies. In the 1990s, the company expanded into supplying lighting components to luminaire manufacturers. Today, Arrant-Light Oy is a specialised supplier of lighting components, with LED components and related drivers, optics and accessories forming the largest product group. From the very beginning, the company has been driven by a principle of delivering best-in-class products that are easy to use and have a long service life.

Arrant-Light Oy currently delivers over 20,000 components a day to 11 countries and is the market leader in white LEDs in Scandinavia and the Baltic countries, with a more than 40% share of the market. Most of our customers benefit from a 24h delivery of stocked items.

With 30 years of experience under our belt, we are well placed to bring our customers the latest products with the highest efficacy. We engage in continuous research and development with our current suppliers and partners, and we will also be announcing the addition of new suppliers and interesting brands later this year.

To celebrate our 30 years in business, we decided to redesign our company logo. The new logo

Logo for the new aLED brand

Logo for the new aLED brand

will be followed by the introduction of aLED, the new brand name for Arrant-Light Oy’s own LED modules and other components. The aLED brand will also include a number of carefully selected products from our partners. aLED is a guarantee of quality and reliable delivery at a competitive price.
Our website at has also been given a makeover. The site is now even easier to navigate, and our aim is to increase the amount of easily available information on the site to make it a useful resource for professionals. Why not take a look at the new website!

I would again like to thank everyone for the past 30 years. I am confident that we can continue to provide You with the best service and products in the market. Development is an ongoing process.

Best wishes for autumn days filled with light,

Janne Mäkinen
Managing Director
Arrant-Light Oy


Citizen COB LEDs generation 3 – What has changed from the last generation?

Citizen has released brand new generation 3 COB LEDs. Is this post I go through briefly what changes and advantages this update brings to Citizen LEDs.

First thing which is noticeable with new LEDs is that product code changes from e.g. CLL022 to CLU024. Third letter has been changed to ‘U’ to inform that generation 3 COBs are UL recognized components.

Most powerful of the generation 3: CLU054

Most powerful of the generation 3: CLU054

Citizen has managed to improve LED performance significantly in generation 3 products compared to the last generation. One of the main updates has been done to package performance, which has allowed better light extraction from generation 3 LED package. Other main update has been in LED die inside package. These new LED dies do not allow only better performance, but also give you the possibility to have even wider current range used with LED. In practice this means 50% wider overdriving range compared to generation 2 LEDs.

What is the best about these generation 3 packages besides great performance improvement is that outlines and mechanical dimensions remain the same. So you can easily update these new products to your existing luminaire designed for previous Citizen LEDs. This also means that all the accessories designed for previous versions still work with new LEDs.

When you are considering update from generation 2 to generation 3, please keep in mind that most probably you will find four suitable options from generation 3 LEDs to replace your existing LED. Generation 3 will give you much more freedom to choose from significant improvement in efficacy, getting balanced performance update or getting economical lumens with same efficacy. If you need help in the selection, I will be happy to help you.

Smallest of the new generation 3: CLU024

Smallest of the new generation 3: CLU024

Citizen has also increased minimum color rendering index for generation 3 from Ra65(min) to Ra70(min). These Ra70 products allow very high lumen output with excellent luminous efficacy. This also allows wider usage of high efficacy LEDs in places where Ra70 is minimum requirement.

If you have some questions or comments about Citizen LEDs, please contact me directly or comment below.

How to Construct a LED Luminaire  

There are many aspects that have to be taken into account when constructing a LED luminaire. In this post I will give you some tips how to build a LED luminaire and which things have to be considered.

There are five steps for designing LED luminaires:

  1. The definition of lighting requirements; how much you need light in certain environment/space.
  2. Defining some design constraints and special requirements, for example related to optics or withstanding high temperatures.
  3. Optical, thermal or electrical design.
  4. The number of LED components is then calculated based on the lumen quantity defined in the specification.
  5. Finally, all components to construct the final luminaire, or prototype in the first stage, have to be defined and specified.

In this post, we concentrate on this last step, how to construct LED luminaires from lighting components rather than the step-by-step luminaire design process itself.

When you start the construction of a luminaire from lighting components, the first thing that you should decide is which kind of LED you use in your luminaire. Basically there are three different options:

  • High-power COB LEDs
  • Mid-power LEDs
  • Low-power SMD LED diodes.

In this post, I’ve divided the options to two different groups: high-power COB LEDs and mid- and low-power LEDs, which usually are SMD LED components.

High-power LEDs

COB Luminaire

Luminaire using Citizen COB LED

High-power LED option comes usually into question when there is a need for large luminous output. Citizen Electronics’ COBs are powered from 3W COB to 80W COB with typical power consumption values. The luminous flux ranges from about 100 lumens to 13 000 lumens with typical current and even to nearly 20 000 lumens with maximum operating conditions. When constructing a luminaire using COB LEDs there is a need for some kind of heat management because of large power density on small area that has to be conducted away from COB LED. The power density can be even 22 W/cm2 on light emitting area of about 8.5 cm2. Many times price target sets the limit for cooling, and active cooling methods can’t be used. This requires the use of passive heat management. In another words, you need some kind of heat sink. Typical material is some aluminum alloy with a fin-shaped structure in order to increase the overall surface area of the heat sink element. Additionally, some kind of thermal paste or other thermal interface material is inserted between the LED and heat sink in order to increase heat conduction from the LED to the heat sink and ultimately to the luminaire body.

Of course you need also LED driver to feed electric current to the COB. When talked about COB LEDs, many times you can drive only one or two LEDs with the same driver. Esko Väisänen explained the selection process of LED driver in his post: How to choose the right LED driver.

In addition to the COB LED and the LED driver, you may also need some optics, such as lens or reflector to increase light quality coming out of your luminaire. Current feeding to your COB LED can be realized either by soldering wires to the COB or using special sockets or connectors to supply power to the LED.

Mid-power and low-power LED

LED Module, which can be used in luminaire needing good light distribution.

LED Module, which can be used in luminaire needing good light distribution.

When constructing a luminaire using mid-power or small-power LEDs, heat management is not such a big problem as in the case of high-power LEDs. Normally the key target for luminaires using mid- or small-power LEDs is the light distribution or color consistency. Applications range from store lighting through emergency lights to decorative lighting, even to LED bulbs. Diffuser plates, for example opal diffuser or prismatic diffuser, can be used in these kinds of luminaires. The luminaire in which small- or mid-power LEDs are used include usually PCBs. The alternatives are usually FR-4 or aluminum metal-core PCB (MCPCB) on which SMD LED diodes are assembled. Usually, if the total power consumption of the LED module exceeds 10W, the aluminum MCPCB is used in order to better conduct heat away from the PCB. Depending on the case, some kind of extra aluminum profile can be used to conduct heat away. If the luminaire has a closed structure, you should also take care of the heat inside the closed luminaire. Heat should be distributed and conducted away from the LED so that the LED does not get too hot. FR-4 can be used for lower power modules by using enough copper pour to spread heat uniformly. FR-4 boards are also cheaper than aluminum PCBs and are used if price becomes the key issue and power consumption is not the problem. In addition to the PCB and the LED diodes some kind of connectors are necessary to connect the LEDs into the outer world electrically.

Also these luminaires need a LED driver to give current to LED components. In addition to heat formed inside the LED components themselves, heat forms also in the LED driver operation. This causes problems if the luminaire structure is closed as discussed earlier. If you use many modules within one luminaire, you will need some kind of cabling between the modules. When designing for example a linear luminaire, there may be a need for some cabling throughput. This will usually mean that cabling has to go on the other side through some plastic or metallic profile. Some additional screw holes may be possibly needed for attaching the metallic profile into the luminaire body.

If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to leave them on the comments field.